I observed an incredible response from my greyhound with osteosarcoma. It was this experience that was the impetus for further investigation and my absolute fascination of the Budwig Protocol. One can become the staunchest of believers, if one can see it with one's own eyes! I have. You may read about my greyhound's case by clicking on the right button. This protocol was developed by Dr. Johanna Budwig and basically is a nutritional approach on how to reverse cancer and other diseases by combining Flaxseed oil with the sulfur protein complex found in cottage cheese or quark. Though developed for humans, I feel this treatment could have very favorable implications for all mammals that are subjected to unnatural factory processed feed stuffs containing adulterated Omega-3s and 6s, including racehorses.
First, I want to say at the beginning of this page that Dr. Johanna Budwig was one of the historic pioneering researchers in essential fatty acid research. She first started working on this around 1949 and was the first person to develop a paper chromatography test in detecting fats, fatty acids, lipoproteides along with their types and volumes, ever! Before her, scientists could not detect the Omega-3s or 6s to any useful extent. This is over 70 years ago! There has been a lot of water under the bridge since then! New research in the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) field and corresponding physiological mechanisms since her professional career ended has expanded the lipid scientific field. My point is that all too often, people will only look to their esteemed guru leader as the sole arbitrator of truth, discounting any modifications. Many Budwig followers are rabid adherents and will resist any deviations in thought from their master's orginal works. I assure you that such intellectual paralysis will stunt the progression of knowledge. I would like to suggest that even though I think Dr. Budwig was a genius and innovative for her times, times change and scientific knowledge evolves for a better truth. On this page, you will find some of the possible improvements which one might want to consider implementing into her protocol. So, let's delve into its science, history and founder:
Secret of Life:
Before we get into the nitty-gritty. Let's look at the big picture which medical practitioners seldom do as specialists. The main object of animal life (and accordingly, its health) is to absorb food nutrients plus Oxygen, rearranging the protons and electrons to a more stable configuration that ends in the production of carbon dioxide and water with a release of energy. The ultimate energy source for life on earth is the sun. It's photons. Plants on this earth with Flax being our focus here, capture the sun's photons, as so eloquently observed by Johanna Budwig via photosynthesis converting water, soil nutrients, photons into essential animal nutrients. It is Flax-seed's nutrients that are so vital in the electron chain of our cell's process to produce energy efficiently via the respiration process and the lack there of, the likely cause of so many of our animal's pathology, especially cancers.
Indications for the Budwig Protocol use:
Cancer, Arteriosclerosis, Strokes, Cardiac Infarction, Heartbeat (irregular), Liver (fatty degeneration), Lungs (reduces bronchial spasms), Intestines (regulates activity), Stomach Ulcers (normalizes gastric juices), Prostate (hypertopic), Arthritis (exerts a favorable influence), Eczema (assists all skin diseases), Old age (improves many common afflictions), Brain (strengthens activity), Immune Deficiency Syndromes (multiple sclerosis, auto-immune illnesses). One can see how many serious diseases are so dependent on a healthy cell and a healthy, efficient cellular respiration process.
First some background work:
Essential Fatty Acids
Essential fatty aids (EFA) are as the name implies, essential to life and health! More over, they cannot be naturally synthesized in mammals and must be obtained from outside nutrition. The two EFA classes of interest here are the Omega-6 and Omega-3 groups which are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The base EFA of the Omega-6 group is Linoleic acid (LA) and that of the Omega-3 group is α-Linolenic acid (ALA). The Linus Pauling Institute writes: "Omega-6 and omega-3 are important structural components of cell membranes. When incorporated into phospholipids, they affect cell membrane properties, such as fluidity, flexibility, permeability, and the activity of membrane-bound enzymes. In addition to endogenous metabolism, dietary consumption of fatty acids can modify the composition and molecular structure of cellular membranes. Thus, increasing omega-3 fatty acid intake increases the omega-3 content of red blood cells, immune cells, atherosclerotic plaque, cardiac tissue, and other cell types throughout the body." Johanna Budwig writes: ". . . the fatty acids that are recognized as vital with 18 links in the hydrogen chains (chain with 18 links) and with high electronic enhancement. It is scientifically known that the electronic energy, e.g. in the linoleic fatty acids, is so high-grade that this energy lifts off of the heavy mass and moves as an electron cloud."
Dr. Budwig considered Flax-seed oil to be the best source of the essential fatty acids for her treatments. Flax-seed oil contains both Omega-6 Linoleic acid (LA) at approximately 16% and the Omega-3 α-Linolenic acid (ALA) at 57%. Flax-seed oil at 1 tablespoon equals 7.3 grams of α-Linolenic acid (ALA). It is flax-seed's α-Linolenic and Linoleic acids that are the pillars to the Budwig protocol. There is confusion by Budwig students about which essential fatty acid she used, LA or ALA? Most of her writings and lectures seem to only prominently mention the omega-6 Linoleic acid (LA) which acts as a respiratory enzyme in cellular metabolism. However, she also usually mentions that Linoleic acid (LA) is most effective in the "linoleic-linolenic acid system" found in flaxseed oil. She felt both were needed. Interestingly, it is usually thought that α-Linolenic acid (ALA) will be most deficient in our modern diets with hundreds of researchers touting its supplementation while the Omega-6's of which Linoleic acid (LA) belongs, not so much. Budwig seems to disagree with the modern view that ALA is all important and writes this: "The highest electron collection is with the combination of linoleic-linolenic fatty acids in flax oil. The linolenic acid (ALA) as conjugated fatty acid is even more effective and is even more strongly effective in interplay with linoleic acid (LA) as it is present in the flax oil chain as essential fatty acids for oxygen absorption. This was relatively easy for me to verify in my experiments. I would like to emphasize this. The combination of double unsaturated linoleic acid (LA) with triple unsaturated linolenic acid (ALA) is particularly well-combined in flaxseed. Naturally the quality of flaxseed differs greatly. Naturally red flowering flaxseed and blue flowering flaxseed are naturally different; there is also a difference depending on whether flaxseed is harvested in the cold like in Siberia, or in Africa." Thus, I say to those questioning which Fatty acids are important, both, with the emphasis on LA! The fatty acid, α-Linolenic acid (ALA) generally is not considered a prime player in cellular respiration unlike the Omega-6's Linoleic acid (LA), but Budwig seemed to think that the combination of both LA with ALA is particularly potent in the oxygen absorption process. The take-away to this and I will harp on this theme throughout this page is that it is not only this synergistic combination of the two that are important--plus their ratios, but the quality of both LA and ALA that is key! Rancidity is to be avoided at all costs!
Brian Peskin is probably our modern day equivalent of Johanna Budwig in championing the (PUFAs) Polyunsatruated Fatty Acids as a therapeutic paradigm. I do not agree with everything he writes, but he does have some very valuable concepts that one should consider and which should bring more value to the Budwig protocol, if implemented. Much of Peskin's work smacks of the teachings of Dr. Budwig, yet he seems mostly to ignore her and even in a few places disparage her work as antiquated. For instance, he doesn't think that it is necessary to mix the PUFA oils with quark or cottage cheese for better bioavailability. I disagree with that, but to each his own. He also thinks that the primary PUFA of importance in cellular respiration is the Omega-6 group, Linoleic acid (LA)! I agree with him on that one and find it most perplexing to why Dr. Budwig felt that Flax oil was the best oil for supplementation when it was lopsidedly high in the Omega 3, α-Linolenic acid (ALA) at 57% and low in the Omega-6 Linoleic acid (16%). Her English translated text: "The combination of double unsaturated linoleic acid (LA) with triple unsaturated linolenic acid (ALA) is particularly well-combined in flaxseed." does not hold up to modern scientific scrutiny. However, her view that ". . . the linolenic acid (ALA) as conjugated fatty acid is even more effective and is even more strongly effective in interplay with linoleic acid (LA)" is still quite true, even in today's knowledge. Her concept of the most ideal ratio seems to be off. The omega-3 & Omega-6 ratio is very important, but not as it is found in flax-seed oil! Peskin writes that the best LA:ALA ratio would be from 1:1 to 2.5:1. Flaxseed oil has a 1:4.2 ratio in favor of ALA which, if anything, by today's science is backwards. A therapeutic oil should be reversed in favor of LA., not ALA!
If you do much research, you will find that the common view is that our modern diet is giving us way too much Omega-6 amounts with all of the experts saying what needs to be done is increased dosage of the Omega-3s to balance out this imbalanced ratio. Not true in reality! First, true, Omega-6s can be found abundantely in our modern diet, but the problem is, these are adulterated PUFAs. They have been treated with heat, chemicals, and oxidized by air--adulterating their healthy natural form. Adulterated Omega-6s as are the Omega-3s can be very toxic in these new forms. In essence, when one follows the Budwig protocol with flax oil with 2, 4 or more tablespoons per day, one is overdosing on the Omega-3s because we are not simultaneously also taking in a high quality Omega-6 supplement like unrefined Sunflower oil. The key is the word, "unrefined"! The Sunflower oils which can be purchased at the store is adulterated as are all of the vegetable oils on the shelf. They all do more harm than good. Back to the ratio, a 1992 medical text had this to say: " . . . the synergistic effect of Omega-6 and Omega-3 fatty acids at low doses which is greater than the effect of high doses of Omega-3 fatty acids alone." Dr. Budwig certainly would agree with this view of the synergistic effect of the two, but she placed ALA ahead of LA by selecting flax oil. She seemed not aware of the importance of ratios. A good indication of what the ratio should be is to consider what the natural ratio values are found in the various tissues. Muscle contains a 6.5:1 ratio in favor of the Omega-6 (LA) with many of the other tissues around 4:1. Brain and neural tissue favors Omega-6 at 100:1, the skin at 1000:1 which tells you how important skin health is to Omega-6 levels! Accordingly, one should supplement for ratios that are in the 1-2.5:1 ratio, if not much higher.
Lets study the conundrum that has plagued me for years when reading the English translations of Dr. Budwig. She seems to have favored the omega-6 Linoleic acid (LA) over Linolenic acid (ALA) in many ov her statements. Here are a few examples from, Cancer, The Problem and the Solution):
" . . . in the linoleic fatty acids, is so high grade that this energy lifts off of the heavy mass and moves as an electron cloud." (page 17)
"Linoleic acid rich in electrons is considered vital. There is a particularly high amount of energy in this double double bond of the linoleic acid." (page 19)
"I found out that the oxygen deficiency in living tissue is overcome through linoleic acid, ideally in conjunction with linolenic acid (ALA)." (page 50)
"I recognized and proved the significance of cis linoleic acid in the function of respiratory enzymes for the first time. The linoleic acid as partner to the sulfhydryl group as creator of the lipoprotiens are recognized, proven and discussed in its fundamental important effect for each vital function." (page 99)
Dr. Budwig mentioned that Torsten Thunberg supports her views writing: "Linoleic acid proved to be the great unknown." A.I. Virtanen did the same and wrote that ". . . linoleic added to the drop of blood inhibits the criteria that are typical for cancer. " (page 100)
"The pairing of thee sulfhydryl group for all cell constituting substances with cis-linoleic acid, possibly combined with linolenic acid, which is more rich in electrons, are substances of high physiological interest for all vital functions." (page 102)
"This great unknown in the cytochrome oxidase function was defined by me for the first time as linoleic acid (LA). I proved it with numerous experiments, later shown to be particularly effective in the linoleic (LA)-linolenic acid (ALA) system."
So you see from all of these quoted comments that highlight Linoleic acid of Dr. Budwig's, it sure gives the impression she views the Omega-6, linoleic acid (LA) as the key respiratory compound, yet she chose Flax oil as the best treatment oil! I do not get it. Modern science is behind Linoleic acid as being the paramount PUFA involved in cellular mitochondrial health. A 2010 study writes: "Cardiolipin, a phospholipid located at the level of inner mitochondrial membrane is known to be intimately involved in several mitochondrial bioenergetic processes as well as in mitochondrial‐dependent steps of apoptosis. Cardiolipin seems to facilitate the association and stabilization of respiratory chain complexes into supercomplexes.. Cardiolipin is particularly rich in unsaturated fatty acids, (approximately 80% represented by linoleic acid in heart tissue) and in addition it is located near to the sites of ROS production." She was right about how important Linoleic acid is in mitochondrial health.
My improvement to the Budwig protocol would be to supplement for Linoleic acid (LA) far more than Linolenic acid (ALA). Sunflower oil is very high in LA, around 65% and has basically no Linolenic acid (ALA) in it. I would go with a combination of unrefined sunflower oil and flax seed oil with something like 3:1 in favor of sunflower oil or even higher sunflower amounts!
Sulfhydryl Group & Lipoproteins
To be more exact, we are interested in the sulfhydryl (thiol) group in proteins. This is the primary form in which sulfur is found in the body along with the disulfide groups. The importance of this group in the physiology of cellular respiration is vital in the oxidation-reduction processes and enhancement of other mechanisms to the well being of a healthy cell. Most herbalists are big fans of organic sulfur. We highly regard such herbs as garlic as very wonderful medicinal plants because of its high sulfur content. Garlic's active compound is allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate, a thiol group). Cottage cheese contains the amino acids, methionine and cysteine which also contain a sulfhydryl group. Thus, these sulfhydryl amino acids in the form of cottage cheese when linked to the Flax-seed's α-Linolenic acid & Linoleic acid complex creates an easily bio-available lipoprotein (fat + protein) that our cells can easily absorb. This is the key component of the Budwig protocol which makes the PUFA water soluble! The two must be taken together and properly combined! One needs to use a mechanical blender to cause this chemical reaction to occur. Mere spooning won't do it. Don't blend any longer than you have to as this tends to introduce oxygen into the volume hastening oxidation and degradation. Once the yellow oil disappears into the white cottage cheese, you are good to go.
Lipoproteins are amazing structures vital for life. We all know what happens if you try to mix an oil (fat) with water. The oil floats to the top with the two not mixing no matter how hard you try. As an example, try mixing a simple herbal tea made from water with flax-seed oil together in a saucer. You will quickly see this happening. The oil floats to the top. In contrast, try first mixing a tablespoon of Flax-seed oil with 2 tablespoons of cottage cheese, combining with an electric immersion blender. The result is a homogenous creamy emulsion with no signs of the yellow oil. Next, add your herbal water-based tea to this emulsion. The tea will easily mix after some stirring, producing a thinner homogenous emulsion. This would be impossible without lipoprotein formation first occurring. Lipoproteins are molecules that combine lipids (oils, fats) with proteins into one structure that is water-soluble forming a nutrient vehicle that is easily transportable within the body which is characteristically made up of approximately 60% water. Of all things unique about the Budwig protocol, this flax-seed oil/cottage cheese aspect is it! Plain flax-seed oil ingested will not have the same effect as Johanna has pointed out. Fresh flax-seed oil must be combined with the sulfhydryl proteins!
Dr. Budwig writes: "When you mix together Quark or cottage cheese and flaxseed oil in your blender, the fat becomes water-soluble. If you prepare the same mixture with (saturated) fat from the pig which has been fattened on totally wrong feed, the fat no longer combines with the protein. It separates. You can see this as an illustration of chemistry, in vitro, of what takes place in all the organism's vital functions, and in its capillary activity, or in the rising of a plant's sap that fat and protein do combine. That fat does become water soluble--but only when protein is in combination with highly unsaturated fats. Those highly, unstartuated fats are, essentially, rich in electrons."
Spectrofluorometric Determination of Sulfhydryl Groups in Cottage Cheese
( Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 51, Issue 8, August 1968, Pages 1166-1168)
The spectrofluorometric method for the determination of sulfhydryl groups in milk proteins and milk has been adapted to apply to Cottage cheese. The method was used in measuring sulfhydryl content of Cottage cheese. Cottage cheese from normally pasteurized skim-milk contained 7.40 ± 1.12 μmoles of sulfhydryl per gram of cheese protein, while cheese from highly heated skim-milk contained 21.30 ± 1.68 μmoles per gram of protein. These data derived from the statistical analysis of a relatively large number of samples, indicate that high-heat skim-milk Cottage cheese contains approximately three times as many spectrofluorometrically measurable sulfhydryl groups as that made from pasteurized skim-milk.
Note: Johanna Budwig used what the Europeans call, quark, for cottage cheese. Quark is very similar to cottage cheese, but lower in sodium. There should be little difference between the two as far as the sulfhydryl proteins are concerned. However, you can make your own quark here in the USA! It is really very easy! If you have access to raw goat or cow milk, that would be even better, but you can use store bought milk. Simply first make a kefir out of the milk by adding kefir grains. This will produce kefir which then can be used to make quark. Look at the YouTube video to right.
Lets examine Johanna Budwig (pronounced: Yaw-hun-nah Bood-vig) and her Flax-seed formula and the biological mechanism which might be behind her treatment. Dr. Budwig's only commonly available book, Flax Oil as a True Aid Against Arthritis, Heart Infarction, Cancer and Other Diseases, 3rd Edition, is a small booklet containing a collection of three of her lectures. This text is rather inadequate as books go. Plus it is a 1992 English translation of the German which seems to make it much harder to understand. Hopefully, I can do a better job of explaining her ideas on this web-page and compare what she wrote to what is being done out on the Internet where there are many variations, along with the method I used with my dog. Her book can be read online free at:
Another book of her's as narrated by Lothar Hirneise, Cancer - The Problem and The Solution, is rather hard-to-find and very expensive for a 127 page booklet when found. It is a more technical book describing how she evolved her theories along with more details. Lastly, there is her, The Oil-Protein Diet Cookbook .
Dr. Budwig's theories were formulated in the 1950's which could mean they are quite out-dated. We shall see! She died in 2003 at the age of 94. She was a licensed Naturopath, pharmacologist with doctorates in both Chemistry and Physics and studied medicine at Göttingen. She was nominated for the Nobel prize 6 or 7 times. As late as 1994 in a written foreword to her 3rd Edition, she still believed in her theories and felt vindicated by current work at that time with fat systems. Dr. Dan C. Roehm, MD in 1990 wrote: "What she (Dr. Johanna Budwig) has demonstrated to my initial disbelief but lately, to my complete satisfaction in my practice is: CANCER IS EASILY CURABLE, the treatment is dietary/lifestyle, the response is immediate; the cancer cell is weak and vulnerable; the precise biochemical breakdown point was identified by her in 1951 and is specifically correctable, in vitro (test tube) as well as in vivo (real)..." These are pretty powerful words coming from an M.D. as late as 1990, and I agree. I have seen it first-hand myself and I am stunned by how fast it can work! Essential fatty acids seem to be at the core of cellular health as Dr. Budwig theorized in the 1950's! I have always been leery of holistic scams online and elsewhere. One of the first clues to knowing how legit a formula might be is price and the second, its list of ingredients. It is a sure sign to be skeptical when promoted "magical" health-giving products have exorbitant prices with secret ingredients. The Budwig remedy is cheap, commonly available and there are no secrets. Always follow the money trail first as an indication of creditability! Dr. Budwig had this to say: "I have the answer to cancer, but American doctors won't listen. They come here and observe my methods and are impressed. Then they want to make a special deal so they can take it home and make a lot of money. I won't do it, so I'm blackballed in every country." She had never tried to patent her formula or sell it to corporations for profit! However, after her death in 2003, her nephew, who she never had a close relationship with, took her proprietary ideas, books, formulas--commercializing them. He also was behind a Budwig clinic that currently operates in Spain.
Dr. Budwig was the first to warn against the industrial practice of using the hydrogenation process to extend the shelf-life of fats in the huge food industry for years before that topic became fashionable. "Fats that have industrially been made stable against oxygen acceptance, also oppose the oxygen uptake by the living tissue through auto-oxidation. Our diets often lack the highly unsaturated fatty acids and contain an excess of man-made oils known as trans fats (or partially hydrogenated oils)." She is referring to the cooking oils sold in grocery stores and the processed oils and fats used in producing a wide array of factory processed foods and this includes dry dog feeds as well! This industrial processing causes toxic by-products to form from the naturally occuring Omega-6 Linoleic Acid as well as the Omega-3 Linolenic Acid. After all, dry dog feed does not last weeks or months in a sack not for good reason! If you only feed your dog processed dry or wet foods, undoubtedly they are not getting the essential oils needed. No wonder there is so much cancer out there in the canine world! Most companies extract the oil from corn, sunflowers, and other plants by using extreme heat and chemicals. The resulting oils and fats may be a major factor in hastening death to the user. These oils are very harmful to life in that they have a many-year shelf life which means even common microorganisms cannot utilize them let alone our own bodies. These oils are absorbed into our cell membranes destroying the electrical charges needed for proper respiration. Without the charge, our cells start to suffocate due to a lack of oxygen. Accordingly, we and our animals are all very deficient in the proper fats that can donate the electrons we need for health.
When investigating a protocol or theory, I have always found it extremely illuminating to learn how that person came up with their ideas, seemingly out of the blue! I was interested to learn how Johanna Budwig did it as well. She was working with pharmaceuticals for the German Federal Health Office (German FDA) in the early 1950's. In 1951, she was in charge of looking over a number of applications for Federal approval from companies for the use of sulfhydryl group (sulfur-containing protein compounds) in treating cancer. She was struck by how important fats were in this paradigm. The sulfhydryl group can be detected in all breathing tissues and is a key player in the automatic oxygen absorption in cells. Yet the sulfhydryl group is not the only story. Budwig writes: ". . .rather it (oxygen absorption) occurs in an interplay between the positive electrically-charged sulphur compounds in the protein and some kind of fatty substance that we cannot detect, because no verifications for it are available. This fatty substance however plays a major role in the Warburg's respiratory enzyme." This 1951 undetectable "fatty substance" eventually became known as Linoleic acid (LA). Budwig pioneered a method of paper chromatography, which could analyze 0.1 mg of linoleic acid (LA) and linolenic acid (ALA). She writes: "Warburg and Thunberg were unable to isolate or understand this mystery substance of the cell biocatalysts in tissue. Likewise the Japanese in their study [of] the ferment 'laccatase' in plants, and the French in studying 'philothion,' or in the lecithin-type substances of phosphatide combinations. Von Euler wrote that the substance seems to be very unstable. Szent-Gyorgyi wrote the same thing prior to 1951. This substance they all sought was responsible for electron displacement and for the fact that not only protons, but also electrons flow over the hydrogen bridge. This great unknown in the cytochrome oxidase function was defined by me for the first time as linoleic acid (LA). I proved it with numerous experiments, later shown to be particularly effective in the linoleic (LA)-linolenic acid (ALA) system."
This brings up Otto Warburg, who had a large influence on Johanna Budwig! Otto Warburg was a German physiologist, medical doctor and Nobel laureate. He is most famously known for his 1920's Cancer Hypothesis: "Cancer, above all other diseases, has countless secondary causes. But, even for cancer, there is only one prime cause. Summarized in a few words, the prime cause of cancer is the replacement of the respiration of oxygen in normal body cells by a fermentation of sugar." This premise is the backbone of most all holistic cancer protocols even to this day. Cancer and tumor growth are caused by the generating of energy by the non-oxidative breakdown of sugar/glucose, known as glycolysis. This is in contrast to healthy cells which mainly generate energy from a pyruvate oxidative breakdown (aerobic process). Pyruvate is an end-product of glycolysis and is oxidized within the mitochondria. According to Warburg, cancer should be interpreted as a mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria act as control centers regulating whether a cell becomes cancerous via glycolysis or stays aerobic and healthy. It also regulates the all important apoptosis (programmed cell death). In contrast, the main-stream medical profession seems to feel this is far too simplistic with their new holy chalice being genetics with all the complexity and obscurity and mystery which that field holds in science. So far, I am not impressed with the promise of genetics despite the wonderful predictions to the eventual cure of cancer. A 2014 study, entitled: Cancer as a metabolic disease: implications for novel therapeutics pretty much backs Warburg's 1920's theories on cancer cause. They found: "Emerging evidence indicates that cancer is primarily a metabolic disease involving disturbances in energy production through respiration and fermentation."
Warburg writes this: "Because no cancer cell exists, the respiration of which is intact, it cannot be disputed that cancer could be prevented if the respiration of the body cells would be kept intact. Today we know two methods to influence cell respiration. The first is to decrease the oxygen pressure in growing cells. If it is so much decreased that the oxygen transferring enzymes are no longer saturated with oxygen, respiration can decrease irreversibly and normal cells can be transformed into facultative anaerobes. The second method to influence cell respiration in vivo is to add the active groups of the respiratory enzymes to the food of man. Lack of these groups impairs cell respiration and abundance of these groups repairs impaired cell respiration - a statement that is proved by the fact that these groups are necessary vitamins for man. To prevent cancer it is therefore proposed first to keep the speed of the blood stream so high that the venous blood still contains sufficient oxygen; second, to keep high the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood; third to add always to the food, even of healthy people, the active groups of the respiratory enzymes; and to increase the doses of these groups, if a precancerous state has already developed. If at the same time exogenous carcinogens are excluded rigorously, then much of the endogenous cancer may be prevented today."
He continues in his 1967 publication, The Prime Cause and Prevention of Cancer : "There are prime and secondary causes of diseases. For example, the prime cause of the plague is the plague bacillus, but secondary causes of the plague are filth, rats, and the fleas that transfer the plague bacillus from rats to man. By a prime cause of a disease I mean one that is found in every case of the disease. Cancer, above all other diseases, has countless secondary causes. Almost anything can cause cancer. But, even for cancer, there is only one prime cause. Summarized in a few words, the prime cause of cancer is the replacement of the respiration of oxygen in normal body cells by a fermentation of sugar. All normal body cells meet their energy needs by respiration of oxygen, whereas cancer cells meet their energy needs in great part by fermentation. All normal body cells are thus obligate aerobes, whereas all cancer cells are partial anaerobes. From the standpoint of the physics and chemistry of life this difference between normal and cancer cells is so great that one can scarcely picture a greater difference. Oxygen gas, the donor of energy in plants and animals is dethroned in the cancer cells and replaced by an energy yielding reaction of the lowest living forms, namely, a fermentation of glucose."
And finally he writes of the application of these theories: "Of what use is it to know the prime cause of cancer? Here is an example. In Scandinavian countries there occurs a cancer of the throat and oesophagus whose precursor is the so-called Plummer-Vinson syndrome. This syndrome can be healed when one adds to the diet the active groups of respiratory enzymes, for example: iron salts, riboflavin, nicotinamide, and pantothenic acid. When one can heal the precursor of a cancer, one can prevent cancer. According to Ernest Wynder of Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research in New York, the time has come when one can exterminate this kind of cancer with the help of the active groups of the respiratory enzymes. It is of interest in this connection that with the help of one of these active groups of the respiratory enzymes, namely nicotinamide, tuberculosis can be healed quite as well as with streptomycin, but without the side effects of the latter. Since the sulfonamides and antibiotics, this discovery made in 1945 is the most important event in the field of chemotherapy generally, and encourages, in association with the experiences in Scandinavia, efforts to prevent cancer by dietary addition of large amounts of the active groups of the respiratory enzymes. Since there can scarcely be overdosage, such experiments can do no harm."
Back to Budwig and her statement that a fatty acid plays a major role in the Warburg's respiratory enzyme. So what is the Warburg's Respiratory Enzyme? Warburg's yellow enzyme (Atmungsjerment) is a flavoprotein that catalyzes an oxidation-reduction reaction and it is the last enzyme in the respiratory electron transport chain of mitochondria . This reaction is necessary for the cells to normally "breath". It is now thought that his Atmungsjerment is the same as the enzyme, Cytochrome c oxidase. This fundamental enzyme converts the oxygen you breath into water at a cellular level by using electrons provided by cytochrome c and protons found in the body. Because oxygen is a very reactive, unstable molecule, Cytochrome oxidase takes electrons from nutrient oxidation and attaches them to an oxygen molecule, then a few hydrogen ions forming two water molecules causing a release of energy. Cytochrome c oxidase utilizes the reaction of oxygen to water to power a molecular pump. As oxygen is consumed, the energy is stored by pumping hydrogen ions from one side of the membrane to the other. Later, the energy can be used to build ATP. ATP is the end product of cellular respiration though it goes without saying here, this is a very complex chain of many events. Linoleic acid (LA) is known to be positively associated with cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity.
So what happens in mitochondrial dysfunction, if we don't have enough right fatty acids (Linoleic Acid) for optimum cellular respiration? The energy-generating capacity of the cell diminishes until the cell can no longer function properly. Defects in cellular respiration are dangerous and likely. As far as cancer, programmed cell death or apoptosis may cease, not to mention that a decreased cellular respiration will be conducive of cancer. Let's take a look at what it is said the Budwig protocol can help, if not cure: Cancer, Arteriosclerosis, Strokes, Cardiac Infarction, Heartbeat (irregular), Liver (fatty degeneration), Lungs (reduces bronchial spasms), Intestines (regulates activity), Stomach Ulcers (normalizes gastric juices), Prostate (hypertopic), Arthritis (exerts a favorable influence), Eczema (assists all skin diseases), Old age (improves many common afflictions), Brain (strengthens activity), Immune Deficiency Syndromes (multiple sclerosis, auto-immune illnesses). One can see how many serious diseases are so dependent on a healthy cell and a healthy, efficient cellular respiration process.
Mitochondria & Electron Transport Chain
Mitochondrial dysfunction can be the precursor for cancer. For those of you not well versed in biology lets examine Mitochondria. Mitochondria are the energy power stations of the mammal's body. We would not produce body heat without them! It is estimated that the human body has about 1000 mitochondria per cell and they produce almost all the energy the body requires. They are our nuclear power reactors! Amazingly, they were at one time individual primitive bacteria that were consumed by a larger cell and life being what it is, a symbiotic relationship was discovered and nurtured through evolution. These once primitive bacterial cells had the unique trait of using oxygen to make energy. This was not the case of the bigger cell that consumed it. This larger cell found that it benefited from the bacteria it consumed and life as we know it was initiated. Mitochondria has its own unique DNA and is only handed down by mammals from mother to daughter. We all owe our mothers our machinery for energy and respiration. Oxygen respiration as utilized by mitochondria allows it to take food nutrients and oxygen in the air and produce ATP the primary energy source for our body's life processes. This is accomplished by our consumed food's electrons being ripped off and fed to oxygen by the electron transport chain. Electrons can be transported in the form of the hydrogen atoms. Enzymes (dehydrogenases) in the mitochondria rip hydrogen atoms off food transporting them to the cytochromes passing them on to cytochrome oxidase. These electrons at the other end of the chain are now used to drive what is called proton pumps. Proton pumps pump electrons pass the mitochondria membrane creating ATP, the general energy source of the body. In other words, respiration is simply the inverse of photosynthesis. Plants utilizing photosynthesis absorb sunlight (photons) from the sun combining it with atmospheric carbon dioxide and water to produce plant nutrients. With respiration, the electron rich substances made from both plants and animals are consumed by other animals where the electrons are stripped by the hydrogenases as previously discussed in conjunction with all important oxygen to eventually produce ATP. So you see how important it is to have a efficiently functioning electron chain for respiration. Without it, cancer can form along with other pathologies.
Lastly, mitochondria are widely thought to be the centers of cell apoptosis (controlled cell suicide) or cellular necrosis (sudden death). Again, this is an important function vital to the control of cancer. If you do an online search of the scientific journals, there are hundreds of studies that support the importance of the mitochondria in the cancer process. Warburg may have had a few things wrong, but he seems to be dead right even to this day on cancer being a mitochondrial dysfunction. Apoptosis is a vital mechanism for protecting any cell. In 1996, it was discovered that the mitochondrial induced apoptosis in a cell was stimulated by a release of cytochrome c which is normally a prime component of cellular respiration; but in this case, cytochrome c can be suddenly released by the mitochondria to activate the deadly caspases that initiate cellular death, apoptosis. Remember, it is widely believed, we all have cancer cells but in most cases, thanks to cellular apotosis, cancer ceases to exist, never becoming a threat.